Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavoring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savory dishes, breakfast cereals, snack foods, tea and traditional foods. The aroma and flavor of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol.
The term “cinnamon” also is used to describe its mid-brown color. Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum Verum is sometimes considered to be “true cinnamon”, but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from the related species Cinnamomum cassia also referred to as “cassia”. In 2016, Indonesia and China produced 75% of the world’s supply of cinnamon.
Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who reported that it had come from China had confused it with cinnamon cassia, a related species. Cinnamon was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a deity; a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by those in the spice trade to protect their monopoly as suppliers. Cinnamomum Verum, which translates as ‘true cinnamon’, is native to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Cinnamomum cassia (cassia) is native to China. Related species, all harvested and sold in the modern era as cinnamon, are native to Vietnam, Indonesia and other southeast Asian countries with warm climates.
In Ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used to embalm mummies. From Hellenistic times onward, Ancient Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon.
The first Greek reference to Kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense, myrrh, and labdanum, and were guarded by winged serpents. Herodotus, Aristotle and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon: they recounted that giant “cinnamon birds” collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests.
Pliny the Elder wrote that cinnamon was brought around the Arabian Peninsula on “rafts without rudders or sails or oars”, taking advantage of the winter trade winds. He also mentioned cassia as a flavoring agent for wine, and that the tales of cinnamon being collected from the nests of cinnamon birds was a traders’ fiction made up to charge more. However, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310.
According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman pound (327 grams (11.5 oz)) of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 1500 denarii, the wage of fifty months’ labor. Diocletian’s Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural laborer earned 25 denarii per day. Cinnamon was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year’s worth of the city’s supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65.