Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect. It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, seizures, a
Common side effects include sleepiness and trouble with coordination. Serious side effects are rare. They include suicide, decreased breathing, and an increased risk of seizures if used too frequently in those with epilepsy.
Diazepam was patented in 1959 by Hoffmann-La Roche. It has been one of the most frequently prescribed medications in the world since its launch in 1963. In the United States it was the highest selling medication between 1968 and 1982, selling more than two billion tablets in 1978 alone. In 2016 it was the 112th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 6 million prescriptions. In 1985 the patent ended, and there are now more than 500 brands available on the market. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.01 per dose as of 2014. In the United States, it is about US$0.40 per dose.